FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ON NATIONAL EDUCATION POLICY
The National Policy on Education (NPE) is a policy formulated by the Government of India to promote education amongst India's people.
The policy covers elementary education to colleges in both rural and urban India.
As providing Education to all the citizens of the country it is necessary to make laws and act regarding this.
NEP is one the major Policies of the Government which lays foundations of the Education system of the country.
There are several NEP launched by the government in different years which govern the education criteria and lays down some guideline regarding the same.
There are four different types of Education policy in India launched in different years. They are as follows.
Education policy in 1968
This was the first Education policy which was launched by the government.
The policy called for fulfilling compulsory education for all children up to the age of 14, as stipulated by the Constitution of India and specialized training and qualification of teachers.
The policy called for a focus on the learning of regional languages, outlining the "three language formula" to be implemented in secondary education - the instruction of the English language, the official language of the state where the school was based, and Hindi Language education was seen as essential to reduce the gulf between the intelligentsia and the masses.
Although the decision to adopt Hindi as the national language had proven controversial, the policy called for the use and learning of Hindi to be encouraged uniformly to promote a common language for all Indians.
Education policy in 1986
The new policy called for "special emphasis on the removal of disparities and to equalize educational opportunity," especially for Indian women, Scheduled tribes (ST) and the Scheduled Caste (SC) communities.
To achieve such a social integration, the policy called for expanding scholarships, adult education, recruiting more teachers from the SCs, incentives for poor families to send their children to school regularly, development of new institutions and providing housing and services.
The NPE called for a "child-centered approach" in primary education, and launched "Operation Blackboard" to improve primary schools
EDUCATION POLICY IN 1992
Program of Action (PoA) 1992, under the National Policy on Education (NPE), 1986 envisaged to conduct of a common entrance examination on all India basis for admission to professional and technical programs in the country.
For admission to Engineering and Architecture/Planning programs, Government of India vide Resolution dated 18 October 2001 has laid down a Three – Exam Scheme (JEE and AIEEE at the National Level and the State Level Engineering Entrance Examinations (SLEEE) for State Level Institutions – with an option to join AIEEE).
This takes care of varying admission standards in these program and helps in maintenance of professional standards.
This also solves problems of overlaps and reduces physical, mental and financial burden on students and their parents due to multiplicity of entrance examinations.
EDUCATION POLICY IN 2020
In 2019, the Ministry of Human Resource Development released a Draft New Education Policy 2019, which was followed by a number of public consultations.
The Draft NEP discusses reducing curriculum content to enhance essential learning, critical thinking and more holistic experiential, discussion-based and analysis-based learning.
It also talks about a revision of the curriculum and pedagogical structure from a 10+2 system to a 5+3+3+4 system design in an effort to optimize learning for students based on cognitive development of children.
On 9th July 2020, the cabinet approved a new National Education Policy with an aim to introduce several changes to the existing Indian education system.
The first ever chairman of NEP of 1966 was Prof. DS Kothari.
The policy of 1986 was reviewed by the Committee which was headed by the Acharya Ramamurti.
Than in 2019 the Committee under K. Kasturirangan drafted the new policy
- Primary Education to all the children of the country.
- To imbibe values of secularism, socialism and democracy in the citizens
- To achieve the objective of universal enrollment and improve quality of education
- Need of value education and inculcation of PROPER perspective about country’s cultural tradition.
- Development of scientific temper
National goals for education focus on the individual child's development and his/her relationship to society.
The aim is to bring out the genius inherent in every individual and to provide an environment that facilitates personality development.
Every Individual has the right to education granted by the constitution of India and it is the duty of the state to provide the same, national education policy aims to achieve the goal that every individual can enjoy the right to education.
In both schools and higher education, NEP will promote Multilingualism. Therefore, the National Institute for Pali, Persian, and Prakrit, Indian Institute of Translation and Interpretation to be set up
The current 10+2 system in the school will be replaced by a new 5+3+3+4 curricular structure corresponding to ages 3-8, 8-11, 11-14, and 14-18 years respectively.
Under the school curriculum, this new system will bring an uncovered age group of 3 to 6 years.
This is the age that has been recognised globally as the crucial stage for the development of mental faculties of a child.
There are many misconceptions regarding New Education Policy that it infringes the right of the child that they have to work or do internships in various fields or with carpenters, mechanical engineers.
It was introduced in the year 2020 under the leadership of the Modi Government.
Some the features of the policy are as flows.
- 6% of GDP to Education
- No rigid separation between Science and Arts stream.
- MHRD renamed as Education Ministry.
- AI based Assessment.
- Test Knowledge application.
- Coding from class 6.
- E- Courses in regional Languages.
- The 10+2 system will be divided into 5+3+3+4 format.
Download NEP 2020 PDF
The indispensable need of the New education policy.
- The extant 10+2 structure in school education will be modified with a new pedagogical and curricular restructuring of 5+3+3+4 covering ages 3-18.
- Currently, children in the age group of 3-6 are not covered in the 10+2 structure as Class 1 begins at age 6.
- In the new 5+3+3+4 structure, a strong base of Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) from age 3 is also included.
National Education Policy 2020 is Welcoming the “Balavatika’s” and “Balbhavans”
- The new education policy now focuses on pre-elementary education which will create a strong base for children below the age of 5.
- The children below 5 years will be sent to the balalaika’s or the preparatory class which will be below the class 1.
- The planning and implementation of the early childhood care and education curriculum (ECCEC) will be carried out jointly by the Ministries of HRD, Women and Child Development (WCD), Health and Family Welfare (HFW), and Tribal Affairs.
- The first five years of schooling will comprise the foundation stage including three years of pre-primary school or the balalaikas as well as classes 1 and 2.
- The National Education Policy 2020 states, the medium of instruction until at least class 5 should be “home language or mother tongue or local/regional language”.
- A National Curricular and Pedagogical Framework for Early Childhood Care and Education (NCPFECCE) for children up to the age of 8 will be developed by NCERT.
- The next three years will be divided into a preparatory stage from classes 3 to 5.
- To track the progress of the students all schools will take examinations in grades 3,5 and 8 which will be conducted through an appropriate authority.
- Besides the preparatory schools and the balvatikas every state/district will be encouraged to establish ”Bal Bhavans” as a special daytime boarding school, participating in art-related, career-related, and play-related activities.
- Free school infrastructure can be used as Samajik Chetna Kendras.
CODING FOR THE CODERS!
- Following the 5+3+3+4 format the early 5 years are for preparatory education and the next three years are for middle education i.e for classes 6 to 8.
- The students of class onward will be taught coding as 21st-century skills such as analysis, critical thinking, and conceptual clarity in school.
- To keep an eye on the progress of every student in each school examinations will be conducted through an appropriate authority.
- The students up to class 8th will be taught in their native language or in their mother tongue.
According to National Education Policy 2020, IGNOU Will Be FEATURING NEW COURSES
- Like formal schooling, IGNOU will now offer courses of various levels equivalent to 3rd, 5th, and 8th.
- NIOS and State open schools will also offer A, B, and C levels of courses which will be equal to the grades mentioned above.
- Also, the programs of equal importance in secondary education or grades 10 and 12 are now offered at IGNOU.
- IGNOU has also added life enrichment programs which will help in increasing the adult literacy rates.
Quality technology-based options for adult learning such as apps, online courses/modules, satellite-based TV channels, online books, and ICT-equipped libraries and Adult Education Centres, etc. will be developed.
- Various other vocational education courses have been piled up in the list.
- This new feature has opened the doors for students who want to study but cannot afford to go to school and learn.
Parakh to evaluate under HECI acting as a single umbrella
- A new National Assessment Centre namely, PAREKH (Performance Assessment, Review, and Analysis of Knowledge for Holistic Development) will be set up as a standard-setting body.
The body will set up the standards of the working of the institutions and will provide the analysis and performance assessment of the nation builders.
- The NEP has emphasized the setting up of a Gender Inclusion Fund and also Special Education Zones for disadvantaged regions and groups.
- Further, the States and UTs will set up independent State School Standards Authority (SSSA).
- The SCERT will lead to the development of a School Quality Assessment and Accreditation Framework (SQAAF) over consultations with all stakeholders this will further help in improving the quality of the education for the students.
- The National Research Foundation will be created as a higher body to encourage strong research on culture and build research capacity across higher education.
- The Higher Education Commission of India (HECI) will be set up as a single overarching umbrella body for the entire higher education, excluding medical and legal education.
- Public and private higher education institutions will be governed by the same set of norms for regulation, accreditation, and academic standards.
- Rigorous action will be taken against substandard stand-alone Teacher Education Institutions (TEIs).
- A National Mission for Mentoring will be established, with a large pool of unsettled senior/retired faculty who would be willing to provide short and long-term mentoring/professional support to university/college teachers.
THE STRESS “BOARD-ERRS” to tone down with vocation.
- The stress of the youth of the country is waived.
The new Education Policy of the decade has reduced the tension of the board exams which used to be held in grades 10 and 12.
The national education policy now lays emphasis on vocational courses.
- The new structure of 5+3+3+4 now focuses on the board exams with a new design.
Now, conducting boards will also be holistic development, which will help go far from the old-school concept.
- Boards may over time also develop further viable models of Board Exams,
such as – annual/semester/modular Board Exams; offering all subjects beginning with mathematics, at two levels; two parts exams or objective type and descriptive type.
National Education Policy 2020 is ENCOURAGING BAG – fewer DAYS.
Taking the efforts the same the nep has focused on reducing the Curriculum content in each subject to its core essentials, and making space for critical thinking and more holistic, inquiry-based, discovery-based, discussion-based, and analysis-based learning.
- The new and mandated content will focus on key concepts, ideas, applications, and problem-solving.
- Teaching and learning will be conducted in a more interactive manner. Classroom transactions will shift, towards competency-based learning and education.
- The new experiential learning will include hands-on learning, arts-integrated and sports-integrated education, and story-telling-based pedagogy as a standard pedagogy.
- Throughout the year the various types of enrichment activities involving arts, quizzes, sports, and vocational crafts will be taught to encourage the bagless days.
- It will be mandatory for each child to learn at least one vocation and be exposed to several more.
- The sampling of important vocational crafts, such as carpentry, electric work, metal work, gardening, pottery making, etc., as decided by States and local communities during Grades 6-8 will be the center of attention.
- A 10-day bagless period sometime during Grades 6-8 to intern with local vocational experts such as carpenters, gardeners, potters, artists, etc.
- The similar internship opportunities to learn vocational subjects for students for Grades 6-12. Vocational courses through online mode will also be made available.
Going online, Bilingual and International
A comprehensive set of recommendations for promoting online education consequent to the recent rise in epidemics and pandemics in order to ensure preparedness with alternative modes of quality education whenever and wherever traditional modes of education are not possible has been covered.
- A dedicated unit for the purpose of orchestrating the building of digital infrastructure, digital content, and capacity building will be created in the HRD ministry to look after the e-education needs of both school and higher education.
- Measures such as online courses and digital repositories, funding for research, improved student services, credit-based recognition of MOOCs, etc., will be taken to ensure distance learning is at par with the highest quality in-class programs.
- An autonomous body, the National Educational Technology Forum (NETF), will be created to provide a platform for the free exchange of ideas on the use of technology to enhance learning, assessment, planning, and administration.
- NEP recommends setting up an Indian Institute of Translation and Interpretation (IITI), National Institute (or Institutes) for Pali, Persian, and Prakrit, strengthening Sanskrit and all language departments in HEIs, and using mother tongue/local language as a medium of instruction in more HEI programs.
- Internationalization of education will be facilitated through both institutional collaborations and student and faculty mobility and allowing entry of top world-ranked universities to open campuses in India.
From the multiple entries and exit points to summing up GER
- Besides the points mentioned above, the union cabinet has laid emphasis on improving the quality of the education
and this has been their focal point as the central government through the improved education policy has centered its attention on increasing the GER i.e the Gross Enrolment Ratio to 50% in higher education by 2025 and school education to 100% in 2030.
- National Education Policy 2020 will bring two crores of out-of-school children into the mainstream.
- Under National education policy 2020, the mission has been called the setting up of a Foundational Literacy and Numeracy mission by the Education Ministry.
- States will prepare an implementation plan for attaining universal foundational literacy and numeracy in all primary schools for all learners by grade 3 by 2025.
- A National Book Promotion Policy is to be formulated. A national council for teacher education will be developed by the year 2022 in consultation with NCERT, SCERTs, teachers, and expert organizations from across levels and regions.
- The policy envisages broad-based, multi-disciplinary, holistic Under Graduate education with flexible curricula, creative combinations of subjects, integration of vocational education, and multiple entries and exit points with appropriate certification.
- An Academic Bank of Credit is to be established for digitally storing academic credits earned from different HEIs so that these can be transferred and counted towards the final degree earned.
- Multidisciplinary Education and Research Universities (MERUs), at par with IITs, IIMs, to be set up as models of the best multidisciplinary education of global standards in the country.
- By 2030, the minimum degree qualification for teaching will be a 4-year integrated B.Ed. degree.
Policy aims to achieve 100% youth and adult literacy. The Centre and the States will work together to increase the public investment in Education sector to reach 6 per cent of GDP at the earliest.